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淄博雅思教育网 > 常见问题 > 剑桥雅思同义词替换汇总


来源:      浏览:      发布日期:2019-01-02 09:59



  Cambridge 4 TEST 1

  1. ignore=pay no attention=not pay any attention=take no notice=not take any notice忽略,无视 v.

  2. encounter=face=confront=meet遇见,遭遇v.

  3. mistaken view=misconception错误的观点n.

  4. easy to reach=accessible容易达到的adj.

  5. change=modify(modification) 改变v.

  6. destruction=destroy=loss毁坏n.

  7. investigate=make inquiries=enquiries=go into=probe=look into 调查v.

  8. where=geographical location 表地点

  9. important=vital=essential=crucial重要的adj.

  10. reason=cause=factor=origins=root=stimulus=impetus原因n.

  11. protect=guard=safeguard=shield=conservation保护v.

  12. newspapers, television=media媒体n.

  13. where to live=habitat居住地n.

  14. get warmer=global warming变暖n.

  15. contribute to=play a part有助于v.

  16. survive=continuing existence幸存,活下来v.

  17. curriculum=course=syllabus课程n.

  18. link to=be connected with=be linked with把…和…相联系v.

  19. underdeveloped=degenerated=rudimentary不发达的adj.

  20. poor=bad=badly=not very good=no good at something=weak贫穷的,可怜的adj.

  21. exceptional=good=excellent=outstanding=brilliant=impressive=admirable超常的,例外的adj.

  22. mating=courtship交配.

  23. follow=track=tail=shadow=hound=stalk=stalker跟随,跟踪v.

  24. good vision ability=vision is obviously more useful…好的视力

  25. best=well=greatest=finest=ideal=top=number one =ultimate=optimum=definitive=unsurpassed=record-breaking极好的adj.

  26. surprised=amazed=astonished=astounded=be taken aback=startled感到惊讶的adj.

  27. volunteer=subject实验研究对象n.

  28. similar=resemble=like=alike相似的adj.

  29. blind=can not see瞎的adj.

  Cambridge 4 TEST 2

  1. initiative=on your own/by yourself=independently=on your own initiative=under your own steam=to be the person who starts something=plan=law主动的,自发的adj. 主动权n.

  2. increase=go up=rise=grow=climb=gain=escalate=pick up=widen=be on the increase=intensify=expand=build up上升,增加v.

  3. teach=educate=train=coach=instruct=bring up教学v.

  4. more than one language=bilingual=sb's second language多种语言n.

  5. determine=establish=identify=pinpoint=diagnose 决定v.

  6. young people=teenager=youth=in your teens=adolescent=minor年轻人n.

  7. community=all the people in a particular area, city, country etc.群体,团体,社区n.

  8. traditional=old-fashioned=outdated=outmoded=unfashionable传统的adj.

  9. fail=failure=not succeed=unsuccessful=vain=fruitless=unproductive=be a failure=go wrong=not work=do no good=fall through失败v.

  10. endanger=to put someone or something in danger of being hurt=damaged=destroyed危及,使危险v.

  11. diverse=varied=variety=wide-ranging=mixed各种各样的adj.

  12. inevitable=certain to happen and impossible to avoid不可避免的adj.

  13. differ from=unusual与…不同v.

  14. reluctant=unwilling=not willing=drag your feet=be loath to do something=conservative勉强的adj.

  15. consult=ask somebody's advice=seek advice=get/obtain advice资询v.

  16. alternative=another=other=different=new=else=variation=variant另一个

  17. therapist=someone who has been trained to give a particular form of treatment for physical or mental illness临床医学家n.

  18. retrain=taking courses再教育v.

  19. salary=pay=wage=income=earnings=fee工资,收入n.

  20. long-term=chronic=long-running=long-standing=lasting=lifelong=prolonged=lingering=enduring=abiding=incurable长期的adj.

  21. complaint=complain=make a complaint=protest=object=complain抱怨n.

  22. illness=disease=virus=bug=infection疾病 n.

  23. connection=relationship=link=correlation联系 n.

  24. beneficial=be good for you/ do somebody good=wholesome=nutritious=nourishing=healthful有益的 adj.

  25. insight=comprehension=understanding理解,见解 n.

  26. physical=relating to the body=bodily身体的 adj.

  27. hazard=risk=danger=threat障碍,危险n.

  28. accompany=with=together=along with=come wit陪伴,伴随

  29. mental=relating to the health or state of someone's mind精神上的,心理的 adj.

  30. possible=possibility=can=potential=there is a chance/possibility可能的adj.

  31. reduction=decrease=drop=fall=cut 减少 n.

  32. class=type=kind=sort=style=category=variety种类n.

  33. rehearsal=practice=training=run-through=exercise排练,演习 n.

  34. peer=your peers are the people who are the same age as you, or who have the same type of job, social class etc同伴 n.

  35. defensive=used or intended to protect someone or something against attack 防御n.

  36. strategy=way=method=approach=technique=system=tactics 方法,功略n.

  37. assist=help=aid=with the aid of帮助 v.

  38. specific=give (somebody) more details=expand on=enlarge on=go into more=greater detail=be more specific=be more explicit=elaborate特定的adj.

  39. substance=a particular type of solid, liquid, or gas 物质 n.

  40. surroundings=environment=circumstance 环境 n.

  41. engage=give somebody a job=employ=take on=appoint=recruit=sign up雇佣 v.

  42. combine=mix=stir=beat=blend=whisk=dilute联合v.

  43. survival=the state of continuing to live or exist幸存n.

  5-12-03 11:05来源:新东方网整理作者:分享到  今天雅思小编为大家总结剑桥雅思系列--剑四test3中出现的同义词替换。以便同学们在雅思练习过程中能够更为丰富的积累词汇,同义词如下:

  Cambridge 4 TEST 3

  1. quotation= a sentence or phrase from a book, speech etc which you repeat in a speech or piece of writing because it is interesting or amusing 引言n.

  2. exemplify= example=case=instance=to be a very typical example of something=to give an example of something 例证 v.

  3. explain=tell=say what/why/where etc=show=demonstrate=go through=throw/shed light on=set out解释v.

  4. outline= to describe something in a general way, giving the main points but not the details概述 v.

  5. purpose=aim=point=idea=objective=object=goal= target=end目的 n.

  6. encourage=persuade=persuasion=get somebody to do something=influence=encourage=talk somebody into=put somebody up to鼓励 v.

  7. loan= an amount of money that you borrow from a bank etc. 贷款 n.

  8. poverty= being poor贫穷n.

  9. crime= illegal activities in general犯罪 n.

  10. reject=to refuse to accept, believe in, or agree with something 拒绝 v.

  11. employ=give somebody a job=take on=engage= appoint=recruit=sign up雇佣 v.

  12. courier=a person or company that is paid to take packages somewhere快递员 n.

  13. storage=keep=store=keep something in storage=preserve 存储n.

  14. facility=rooms, equipment, or services that are provided for a particular purpose 设备n.

  15. ambitious=ambition=power-hungry/power-mad=competitive= determined to be successful, rich, powerful etc.有志向的,雄心壮志的 adj.

  16. effort=to try very hard to do something= attempt=campaign=drive努力 n.

  17. feature= a part of something that you notice because it seems important, interesting, or typical;a part of the land, especially a part that you can see: a part of someone's face, such as their eyes, nose etc特点 n.

  18. planet= the world=earth/Earth=the globe 地球 n.

  19. unpredictable=can't say/tell=unforeseeable=it remains to be seen 无法预测的 adj.

  20. machinery=machines, especially large ones= a system or set of processes for doing something=machine=device=robot=appliance=mechanism 机械 n.

  21. ultimate=someone's ultimate aim is their main and most important aim, that they hope to achieve in the future= final最终的,根本的 adj.

  22. atmosphere= the feeling that an event or place gives you= the mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth气氛; 大气n.

  23. occur=happen=take place=there is=come about=come up=turn up=arise=strike发生v.

  24. expand= get bigger=grow=swell up=stretch扩张,扩大v.

  25. form= type= way something is/appears=shape形式 n.

  26. emerge=appear=become visible=come into view/come into sight=come out=reappear 出现 v.

  27. emit= to send out gas, heat, light, sound etc 发出,放射 n.

  28. situation= circumstances=position=case=plight情况,状况 n.

  29. self-conscious=worried and embarrassed about what you look like or what other people think of you自觉的 n.

  30. generate= to make someone have a particular feeling= form=produce=create 产生 v.

  31. various=there are several different types of that thing=different=a variety of something=differing=varying=an assortment of something=assorted=a mix of something=a mixture of something各种各样的 adj.

  32. convenient= a thing or way of doing something that is easy and quick; a time or arrangement that is convenient 方便的 adj.

  33. objective=impartial=neutral=not take sides=unbiased=disinterested客观的 adj.

  34. enquiry=investigate=make inquiries/enquiries=go into=probe=look into=solve=be under investigation 调查

  35. observe=notice=can see/can tell=see=spot=detect=note become aware/conscious=catch somebody's eye=perceive观察 v.

  36. comment=remark=thing to say=point=statement= announcement=declaration=observation评论

  37. include=consist of=comprise=be composed of= be made up of包含,包括 v.

  38. focus on=deals only with=concentrate专注于 v.

  39. affect=have an effect=have an impact=take effect= make a difference=impact影响 v.

  40. gained from=come from=be based on=originate= go back to=have its origins in=have its roots in=derive from/be derived from=develop from/evolve from产生于…. V.

  41. concern=worry=stress=anxiety=strain= a feeling of worry about something important关心,担心n.

  Cambridge 4 TEST 4

  1. official=formal=authorized=on (the) record官方的,正式的 adj.

  2. athletic=physically strong and good at sport=fit=be in shape=be in good condition运动的 adj.

  3. intensive=involving a lot of activity, effort, or careful attention in a short period of time=rapid=crash course密集的,加强的 adj.

  4. burst=a short sudden effort or increase in activity=burst of anger/enthusiasm/temper etc 爆炸,突发

  5. recognize=know=identify=pick out=tell认出,承认v.

  6. inadequate=not enough=too little=few=scarce=insufficient=be in short supply=lack of something=be short 不足的 adj.

  7. develop=come from=be based on=originate=go back to=have its origins in=have its roots in=derive from=be derived from=be founded on=grow out of=develop from=evolve from发展,生长 v.

  8. enable=make something possible=allow=permit=pave the way for=clear the way for使能够 v.

  9. predict=anticipate=forecast=foretell=prediction=projected=guess in advance预测 v.

  10. specialist=someone who knows a lot about a particular subject, or is very skilled at it=expert专家 n.

  11. theoretical=relating to the study of ideas, especially scientific ideas, rather than with practical uses of the ideas or practical experience理论的 adj.

  12. basic=fundamental=essential=central=underlying=simple=crude=primitive=rudimentary=unsophisticated=low-tech基本的 adj.

  13. nature=plants/animals etc=somebody's character=qualities of something=type自然 n.

  14. aim=purpose=point=idea=objective=object=goal=target=end目的 n.

  15. translate=change languages=interpret=put something into English/French/Japanese etc翻译 v.

  16. ancient=belonging to a time long ago in history, especially thousands of years ago 古老的 adj.

  17. realistic=when pictures, films etc make things seem real=lifelike=realism=true to life=vivid实际的,现实的

  18. field=area=branch=world=domain=realm=sphere领域 n.

  19. document=a piece of paper that has official information on it;a piece of written work that is stored on a computer文件 n.

  20. equal=the same in number, amount, level etc as something else平等的 adj.

  21. influence=effect=side effect=impact=what something does to=the implications 影响 n.

  22. behavior=manner=conduct=behave=well-behaved=good=be on your best=stay out of trouble行为 n.

  23. compare=to examine or judge two or more things in order to show how they are similar to or different from each other=liken=make a comparison=draw an analogy=draw a parallel=contrast 比较 v.

  24. economically=in a way that is related to systems of money, trade, or business经济上地 adv.

  25. establish=determine=identify=pinpoint=diagnose=to start a new business or organization.建立新的生意/组织 v.

  26. sustainable=able to continue without causing damage to the environment; able to continue for a long time可持续的 adj.

  27. realize=know=be/become aware=can tell=appreciate=be conscious=know perfectly well=know/learn from experience意识到 v.

  28. limit=restrict=set/impose/put a limit=keep to/keep within=confine=fix 限制

  29. produce=form=create=generate生产 v.

  30. guarantee=promise=assure=give somebody your word=swear=vow=commit to=pledge保证 v.

  31. liberty=freedom=a free hand自由 n.

  32. independence=self-sufficiency=self-reliance 独立 n.

  33. consistent=always behaving in the same way or having the same attitudes, standards etc - usually used to show approval持续的 adj.

  34. underestimate=to think or guess that something is smaller, cheaper, easier etc than it really is=to think that someone is not as good, clever, or skilful, as they really are低估 v.

  35. provision=when you provide something that someone needs now or in the future 提供 n.

  Cambridge 5 TEST 1

  1. produce=develop=manufacture生产 v.

  2. central=middle中心的 adj.

  3. did not have=without没有 v.

  4. bring=confer=award=present=grant=confer=allocate=offer带来 v.

  5. time limit=deadline时间限制,期限 n.

  6. increase=go up/rise=grow=climb=gain=escalate=expand=pick up=widen=intensify=build up增加

  7. assistant=helper=coach 助手 n.

  8. immense=big=major=considerable=great=huge/enormous=tremendous=large scale/large-scale巨大的 adj.

  9. illustrate=show=be a sign=demonstrate=mean=make clear=reflect=tell=be evidence=reveal 表明,显示 v.

  10. quotation=a phrase or sentence that is well-known or often used 引用语 n.

  11. predecessor=someone who had your job before you started doing it 前辈,前任n.

  12. rival=a person, group, or organization that you compete with in sport, business, a fight etc=competitor 对手,竞争者 n.

  13. distraction=something that stops you paying attention to what you are doing分心的事物 n.

  14. fault=defect=problem=trouble=flaw=weakness =bug=virus=be something wrong with 错误,缺点

  15. cornerstone=basis=foundation=the key 基石n.

  16. confer=award=present=grant=allocate 给予 v.

  17. stability=the condition of being steady and not changing稳定 n.

  18. prevail=win=come out on top=prevail=carry the day流行,获胜v.

  19. contract=agreement=understanding=compromise 合约 n.

  20. grant=award=present=confer=allocate给予 v.

  21. fascinate=if someone or something fascinates you, you are attracted to them and think they are extremely interesting吸引,使着迷 v.

  22. disturb=interrupt=bother=distract=put somebody off 打扰 v.

  23. expect=think=anticipate预期,期待 v.

  24. psychology=the study of the mind and how it influences people's behavior 心理学 n.

  25. obey=comply with=abide by=keep to=stick to the rules=conform to=observe=respect=toe the line=go by the book/do something by the book 服从,顺从v.

  26. identity=someone's identity is their name or who they are 身份n.

  27. severity=used of the degree of something undesirable 严重性 n.

  28. unfold=open=happen=develop=expand 展开,发生 v.

  29. deliberately=intentionally=on purpose=purposely故意地 adv.

  30. moral=relating to the principles of what is right and wrong behavior, and with the difference between good and evil 道德上的,与道德有关的 adj.

  31. prior to=before=previous在…前面

  32. repetition=doing or saying the same thing many times重复 n.

  33. genetic=relating to genes or genetics基因的,遗传学的 adj.

  34. sacrifice=when you decide not to have something valuable, in order to get something that is more important牺牲 v.

  35. victim=someone who has been attacked, robbed, or murdered受害者 n.

  36. forge=form=counterfeit 形成;伪造 v.

  37. persuade=convince=win over=talk around 说服 v.

  38. surrender=give in 投降,放弃 v.

  39. extinct=an extinct type of animal or plant does not exist anymore=disappear=vanish灭绝的,绝种的 adj.

  40. abundant=plenty=ample 充裕的,丰富的 adj.

  41. exaggerate=overstate夸张,夸大 v.

  42. phenomenon=something that happens or exists in society, science, or nature, especially something that is studied because it is difficult to understand 现象 n.

  43. perception=idea=notion=view=belief=insight 认识,观念,看法 n.

  44. impression=infection=effect=influence=affection印象,感想 n.

  45. entitle=to give someone the official right to do or have something 使某人有权利/资格 v.

  46. distortion=a change for the worse=deformation扭曲,曲解 v.

  47. dispose=to arrange things or put them in their places=arrange=settle=manage=cope with=deal with 安排,处理 v.

  48. intuition=the ability to understand or know something because of a feeling rather than by considering the facts=instinct 直觉 n.

  49. emission=a gas or other substance that is sent into the air排放物,散发物n.

  50. diminish=reduce=decrease=fall=lessen=cut 减少,减小v.

  51. postpone=put back=delay=adjourn 延期,推迟 v.

  52. crucial=important=critical=vital=necessary=essential 至关重要的 adj.

  53. pessimistic=expecting that bad things will happen in the future or that something will have a bad result=getting worse悲观的 adj.

  54. attempt=purpose=order=effort 尝试,努力

  Cambridge 5 TEST 2

  1. similar=like=resemble相似的 adj.

  2. derive=originate=come from=stem from起源 v.

  3. impetus=momentum=stimulus=incentive=motivation=encouragement 动机,动力 n.

  4. generate=produce=bring into existence=make=manufacture产生 v.

  5. couple with=and=accompany=with 伴随 v.

  6. factor=reason=element=component=ingredient 因素 n.

  7. unique=have the distinction=distinct=different=extraordinary=special独特的 adj.

  8. advance=progress=development=growth=increase进步 n.

  9. field=domain=territory=industry=sector领域 n.

  10. alternative=substitute=replacement替代物 n.

  11. like=such as=for example=for instance 例如

  12. resource=material=source资源,来源 n.

  13. limited=restricted=exhaustible=finite有限的adj.

  14. involve=rely on=contain=comprise 包含,牵涉 v.

  15. current=modern=recent=present最近的adj.

  16. particular=extraordinary=special=detail=specific=unique特别的,独有的adj.

  17. draw on=absorb=do with吸收 v.

  18. settle on=make choice of=decide on选定 v.

  19. superiority=advantage=edge=high quality优势 n.

  20. accompany=when=keep company=be associated with 陪伴,伴随v.

  21. view=belief=opinion=insight=perception 观点 n.

  22. artificial intelligence=reasoning in machine人工智能 n.

  23. involve with=associate with=link to=relate to与…有关联 v.

  24. release=issue=launch=convey=public=deliver 发行,发表v.

  25. difficult=demanding=hard=tough困难的 adj.

  26. task=job=work=labour 任务,工作 n.

  27. instantly=rapidly=immediately立即地 adv.

  28. react=respond 反应 v.

  29. relate to=depend on=link to=associate with=involve with 与…有关系 v.

  30. subject views=outlook=personal/individual views=personal/individual opinions 主观观点 n.

  31. distort=to change the appearance, sound, or shape of something so that it is strange or unclear; to report something in a way that is not completely true or correct=misinterpret 扭曲,歪曲 v.

  32. figure out=settle=decide=tell=understand 理解,想出 v.

  33. assessment=appraisal=evaluation=estimate=judgment评估,估计 v.

  34. emerge=appear=come forth出现 v.

  35. remain=keep=stay=maintain保持 v.

  36. exploitation=development=utilization=usage利用,使用n.

  37. foster=cultivate=raise=nurture培养,养育 v.

  38. overtake=catch up=sweep over赶上,压倒 v.

  39. initial=original=premier最初的,开始的 adj.

  40. whereas=however=while=nevertheless=but=yet然而,但是 adv.

  Cambridge 5 TEST 4

  1. community=organization=group=body团体n.

  2. fragile=delicate脆弱的adj.

  3. remote=distant 遥远的 adj.

  4. require=desire=order=command要求 v.

  5. inhabitant=resident=dweller居住者,居民 n.

  6. consequently=thus=accordingly=hence=therefore=as a result 结果,因此 adv.

  7. destination=goal=end point=terminus目的地n.

  8. throughout=around=wholly=everywhere=end-to-end自始至终,到处,全部 adv.

  9. operate=act=run运转 v.

  10. output=product输出,产品 n.

  11. decline=reduction=fall=slump=decrease=recession 下降n.

  12. undermine=destroy=damage=hurt=ruin 破坏 v.

  13. revive=renaissance复兴 v.

  14. unusual=rare=strange=uncommon罕见的,不寻常的 adj.

  15. ordinary=standard=common=usual=general普通的,平常的adj.

  16. fragment=shard=debris=pieces=ruins碎片n.

  17. break=shatter=crack打碎,打破 v.

  18. interior=inner layer=inside 内部的n. &adj.

  19. insist=claim=argue=believe=think坚持,坚称 v.

  20. expand=extend=grow=boom=spread out=enhance扩张,扩大v.

  21. suppress=control=restrain=repress=put down=oppress=inhibit=ban=forbid=stifle 压制 v.

  22. speed up=increase speed=quicken up=accelerate speed加速 v.

  23. examine=analyse=survey=inspect=study=detect=investigate检查,调查 v.

  24. dispute=debate=controversy=disagree=argue争论,争执n.&v.

  25. detect=analyse=explore=research=survey=investigate=inspect 察觉,发现 v.

  26. claim=say=state=insist=argue=think=believe声称 v.

  27. cue=implication=reminder=hint=evidence提示,信号,暗号n.

  28. unpredictable=fluctuate=changeable无法预测的 adj.

  29. be referred to as=be known as=be regarded as 被称为

  30. encourage=induce=trigger=stimulate=boost=inspire鼓励,促使 v.

  31. considerable=plenty=big=major=important数量可观的 adj.

  32. regardless of=despite of=take no notice of 不管,不顾

  33. adequate=plenty=proper=appropriate=suitable充足的,适当的 adj.

  34. assure=make sure=guarantee=ensure=insure=secure=make certain of保证,确保 v.

  35. suitable=appropriate=proper=adequate=matching 合适的 adj.

  Cambridge 6 TEST 1

  exchange=apply something learned in one to others=change 交流v.

  expertise=skill 专门技术n.

  employ=analyze=study 使用v.

  investigation=analysis 调查n.

  narrow=focus on 缩小范围v.

  reproduce=copy=replicate=repeat 复制v.

  funded support=finance 资金n.

  athlete=sportsmen and women 运动员n.

  calculate=measure 计算 v.

  event=championship 赛事 n.

  plan=prepare=design 计划 v.

  improve=grow=get better 进步 v.

  trade=economy 贸易n.

  transport=import or export=deliver 运输 v.

  local=domestic=native=indigenous 当地的adj.

  weakening=less=reduced=decreased 下降的adj.

  value=worth=price=credit=use=benefit=profit 价值n.

  delivery=export or import 运输 n.

  nearby nations=geographic neighbours 近邻 n.

  international=ocean=global=worldwide 国际的 adj.

  shipping=freight 船运 n.

  cargo=freight=goods 货物 n.

  tariff=charge=fee=tax 税费n.


  difficult=harsh=demanding=tough=challenging 困难的 adj.

  essential supplies=food and clothing=necessities 必需品 n.

  supply=provision=support 供给 n.

  grow=increase=rise=improve=go up=boost=expand=extend 增长 v.


  understanding=knowledge 了解 n.

  well-being=health 健康 n.

  impossible=out of the question=unlikely 不可能 adj.

  catch=exploit=capture 抓捕 v.

  surrounding=environment=circumstance 环境 n.

  push to one's limits=test one's limits 挑战极限

  not unmanageable=can cope with 能处理的

  present inhabitant=descendant 居民

  give up=abandon 放弃

  mainly=heavily=most 主要地

  visit=venture 参观

  1. interior=inner=inside 内部的 adj.

  2. change=shift=alter=transfer 改变v.

  3. establish=build=found=set up=start 建立 v.

  4. official=authority=leader=supervisor 官员 n.

  5. isolated=inaccessible=distant=remote=faraway 隔离的, 边远的 adj.

  6. collapse=fall=fall over=fall down 倒塌 v.

  7. destroy=devastate=wreck=obliterate 毁灭 v.

  8. absorb=digest=take in=assimilate 吸收 v.

  9. severe=serious=stiff=heavy 严重的 adj.

  10. purify=refine=distill 净化 v.

  11. hidden=disguised=concealed=veiled 隐藏的 adj.

  12. decline=decrease=reduce=fall=drop 下降 v.

  13. deteriorate=get worse=go down=decline 变坏 v.

  14. recognize=know=identify=pick out 认出 v.

  15. conclude=summarize=come to/reach the conclusion 得出结论 v.

  16. adapt to=get used to=become accustomed to=adjust to 适应 v.

  17. initiate=start=launch=open=set in motion 开始,发起 v.

  18. refer to=mention=allude to=touch on 提到 v.

  19. identify=name=recognize=diagnose 确定,认同 v.

  20. request=demand=claim=petition=appeal 要求 n.

  21. be divided into=separate=split=break up=break down 分开 v.

  22. consist of=be made up of=be composed of=comprise 由…组成

  23. hinder=hamper=impede 阻碍 v.

  24. objective=aim=purpose=goal=target 目标 n.

  25. implement=carry on=execute=put sth. Into practice 实行 v.

  26. promote=encourage=help=aid 促进 v.

  27. warn=caution=alert=give sb. a warning 警告 v.

  28. observation post=watchtower 瞭望塔 n.

  29. access=entrance=entryway=way in 通路,进入 n.

  1. teach=educate=cultivate=nature 教育v.

  2. actor=star 演员n.

  3. first=initial=early=primary 最早的adj.

  4. storyline=narrative=plot 故事情节n.

  5. globe=world 世界n.

  6. early=first=ancient 早期的adj.

  7. passing of time=flow of time 时光的流逝

  8. describe=tell 描述v.

  9. realistic=achievable 现实的adj.

  10. target=goal=aim 目标n.

  11. feedback=comment=advice=criticism 反馈n.

  12. match to=suit to 合适

  13. reward=promotion or advancement=prize=benefit 奖励n.

  14. link to=make something contingent on=associate with=connect with=relate to 联系起来

  15. achievement=attainment=gain=success 成就n.

  16. remuneration=payment 酬金n.

  17. tend to=prone to 倾向于

  18. feel=perceive=think=find=experience=notice=have an opinion 感觉v.

  19. participate=be involved in=take part in=join 参加v.

  20. staff=employee=worker 员工n.

  21. visible=disclosed=obvious=noticeable 可见的adj.

  22. clerical worker=clerk 书记员n.

  23. judge=rate=criticize=assess=evaluate=gauge=appraise 评判v.

  24. job=work=assignment 工作n.

  25. delay=slow=prolong=postpone=procrastinate=shelve=put off延后v.

  26. growing old=ageing 变老

  27. people=mortal=people=individual 人n.

  28. life=lifespan 生命

  29. chance=likelihood=fortune=hope=possibility=opportunity=risk=luck 机会n.

  30. production=generation=output 产量n.

  31. theory=hypothesis=guess=guesswork 猜想n.

  32. focus on=emphasize=aim at=concentrate on 集中于

  33. short=scarce=limited=insufficient 短缺的adj.

  1. drug company=pharmaceutical company 医药公司n.

  2. promotion=marketing 营销n.

  3. increase=escalate=rise=go up=grow 上升v.

  4. research=study=survey=investigation 研究n.

  5. work=be an effective way=be useful=help=achieve=succeed=have an effect=happen=turn out 奏效v.

  6. technique=strategy=skill=expertise=method=way 技术n.

  7. criticism=judgement=skepticism=disapproval=denunciation 批评n.

  8. moral=ethical 道德的 adj.

  9. legitimate=have every right to do=legal=right=authorized 合法的adj.

  10. money=profit=benefit=income=currency 钱n.

  11. adults=men and women 成人n.

  12. maternal=mother=female 母亲的adj.

  13. education=literacy=cultivation 教育n.

  14. child=infant=kid 孩子n.

  15. approximately=about=around=nearly 大约adv.

  16. impressive=greatest=touching=unforgettable 印象深刻的 adj.

  17. programme=campaign=project 项目n.

  18. common=persistent=normal=usual=ordinary=everyday 常见的adj.

  19. be halved=decline by 50% 减半

  20. key=most important=crucial=critical=significant 关键的adj.

  21. produce=develop=generate=engineer=manufacture 生产v.

  22. detailed=explicit=specific 细节的adj.

  23. on its own=alone 自身

  24. however=but=yet 但是

  25. self-confidence=assertiveness=confidence 自信n.

  26. effective=useful=beneficial=good=needed 有效的 adj.

  27. distinguish=recognize the difference=differentiate 区别v.

  1. rely on=depend on 依靠v.

  2. avoid=stay away=keep away=steer clear of=make a detour 避免v.

  3. die out=extinct=disappear=no longer exist 灭绝 v.

  4. hunt=search for=look for=try to find=in search of 打猎v.

  5. limb=arm or leg=body=organ 四肢 n.

  6. perceive=sense=see=spot=become aware of=observe 感知,感觉v.

  7. calculate=measure=work out=figure=estimate=access 计算v.

  8. detection=finding=observation 探测 n.

  9. coin=invent=make=create=come up with 发明,创造 v.

  10. inaccurate=incorrect=wrong=misleading 不精确的 adj.

  11. revision=change=shift=reform=alteration 改进 n.

  12. downward=fall=drop=downhill 下降的 adj.

  13. increasing=soaring=growing=rising 上升的adj.

  14. primarily=mainly=largely=chiefly=principally 主要地 adv.

  15. due to=because of=as a result of=thanks to=owing to 因为

  16. decrease=reduce=fall=drop 下降v.

  17. radical=not traditional=new=unconventional 激进的adj.

  18. prior to=beforehand=before=in advance=on the eve of 之前

  19. demanding=difficult=hard=challenging=tough 要求高的,艰难的 adj.

  20. well known=notorious=famous=renowned 著名的 adj.

  21. admit=acknowledge=confess=to tell the truth 承认 v.

  22. be similar to=like=resemble=bear a resemblance to=akin to 相似 v.

  23. result in=lead to=cause=give rise to=bring about 引发,导致

  24. sophisticated=advanced=high-tech=complex=complicated 复杂的

  25. address=solve=deal with=handle 处理 v.

  26. imitate=copy=impersonate=follow one's example 模仿 v.

  27. maintain=continue=carry on=keep up=preserve 维持 v.

  28. feed=eat=have=chew=swallow=consume 喂食 v.

  29. illustrate=show=demonstrate=make clear=reflect 说明 v.

  30. memorise=learn=commit something to memory 记忆 v.

  31. conventional=traditional=conformist=conservative 传统的 v.

  32. notice=see=spot=be aware of=be conscious of 注意到 v.

  33. retain=keep=save=hold on to 保持 v.

  34. convince=persuade=win sb. over=satisfy 使确信 v.

  35. spectacular=impressive=imposing=striking=grand 壮观的 adj.

  1. interior=inner=inside 内部的 adj.

  2. change=shift=alter=transfer 改变v.

  3. establish=build=found=set up=start 建立 v.

  4. official=authority=leader=supervisor 官员 n.

  5. isolated=inaccessible=distant=remote=faraway 隔离的, 边远的 adj.

  6. collapse=fall=fall over=fall down 倒塌 v.

  7. destroy=devastate=wreck=obliterate 毁灭 v.

  8. absorb=digest=take in=assimilate 吸收 v.

  9. severe=serious=stiff=heavy 严重的 adj.

  10. purify=refine=distill 净化 v.

  11. hidden=disguised=concealed=veiled 隐藏的 adj.

  12. decline=decrease=reduce=fall=drop 下降 v.

  13. deteriorate=get worse=go down=decline 变坏 v.

  14. recognize=know=identify=pick out 认出 v.

  15. conclude=summarize=come to/reach the conclusion 得出结论 v.

  16. adapt to=get used to=become accustomed to=adjust to 适应 v.

  17. initiate=start=launch=open=set in motion 开始,发起 v.

  18. refer to=mention=allude to=touch on 提到 v.

  19. identify=name=recognize=diagnose 确定,认同 v.

  20. request=demand=claim=petition=appeal 要求 n.

  21. be divided into=separate=split=break up=break down 分开 v.

  22. consist of=be made up of=be composed of=comprise 由…组成

  23. hinder=hamper=impede 阻碍 v.

  24. objective=aim=purpose=goal=target 目标 n.

  25. implement=carry on=execute=put sth. Into practice 实行 v.

  26. promote=encourage=help=aid 促进 v.

  27. warn=caution=alert=give sb. a warning 警告 v.

  28. observation post=watchtower 瞭望塔 n.

  29. access=entrance=entryway=way in 通路,进入 n.

  Cambridge 7 TEST 3

  1. cause=reason=factor=origin=root 原因 n.

  2. measure=weigh=time=take=read 测量 v.

  3. route=motorway=highway=expressway 车道 n.

  4. exclude=omit=miss out=leave out=drop 排除在外 v.

  5. renewable=sustainable=recycling=environmentally friendly 可再生的 adj.

  6. exist=there is/are=be found=occur 存在 v.

  7. limit=restrict=constrain=confine=keep to 限制 v.

  8. boundary=border=edge=outskirts=frontier 边界 n.

  9. allow for=make sth. Possible 使…成为可能

  10. proposal=suggestion=recommendation=proposition 提议 n.

  11. urban=city=town=municipal 城市的 adj.

  12. odour=smell=stench=stink 味道 n.

  13. find one's way=navigate 导航 v.

  14. bearing=position=standing 方位 n.

  15. exchange=share=distribute 分享 v.

  16. waste=unwanted materials=rubbish=garbage=trash 废物 n.

  17. dental=teeth 牙齿的 adj.

  18. priority=preferential=the most important=overriding 优先 n.

  19. encourage=promote=help=support=be supportive 鼓励 v.

  20. explore=look for=discuss=think 探索 v.

  21. factor=cause=reason=root=origin 因素 n.

  22. cultivate=grow=raise 培养 v.

  23. convert=modify=transfer=adapt=customize 转变 v.

  24. digest=take in=absorb=assimilate 消化 v.

  25. preserve=protect=keep=store=keep sth. In storage 保存,保护 v.

  26. monitor=watch=keep an eye on 监视 v.

  27. allocate=distribute=apportion=grant=confer 分配 v.

  28. decline=decrease=reduce=fall=drop 下降 v.

  29. fragile=weak=delicate=breakable=feeble 脆弱的 adj.

  30. upgrade=improve=make sth.better=make improvements 改进,提高 v.

  31. advanced=developed=sophisticated=high-tech 先进的 adj.

  32. sustainable=renewable=recycling=environmentally friendly 可持续的 adj.

  33. evidence=proof=documentation 证据 n.

  34. long-standing=lengthy=long-running=lasting 长期的 adj.

  Cambridge 7 TEST 4

  1. large numbers of=tens of thousands of=many 大量的

  2. large=massive=huge=enormous=vast 巨大的 adj.

  3. resemble=look like=alike=much the same=akin to 相像 v.

  4. foe=enemy=adversary=hostile 敌人 n.

  5. more than=exceed=over=in excess of 超过 v.

  6. decrease=crash=reduction=fall=drop 下降 n.

  7. stop=halt=come to a halt 停止 v.

  8. sufficient=abundant=enough=adequate 充足的 adj.

  9. establish=found=build=set up 建立 v.

  10. be Successful=prosper=do well=succeed=thrive 成功

  11. recognize=certify=accept=acknowledge承认 v.

  12. label=display=call=brand=hail 贴标签,命名 v.

  13. adapt=adjust=get used to=become/grow accustomed to 适应 v.

  14. mistake=error=fault=slip=mix-up 错误 n.

  15. keep a check on=monitor=watch=keep an eye on 监视 v.

  16. unexpected=unpredictable=unforeseeable 不可预见的 adj.

  17. generally=in general=in the whole=all in all=all things considered 大体上的 adv.

  18. previously=before=earlier=formerly 先前 adv.

  19. apply=use=make use of=exercise=utilize 应用 v.

  20. due to=because=since=owing to=thanks to=as a result of 因为

  21. raise=lift=lift up=pick up=scoop up 使…上升 v.

  22. in addition=besides=additionally=too=also=as well 除此之外

  23. inhabitant=resident=population=citizen=local 居民 n.

  24. collapse=failure=fall 崩塌,失败 n.

  25. set up=establish=found=start=open 建立

  26. ensure=make sure=make certain=see to it that 保证 v.

  27. assist=help=aid=give a hand=do sth. For 协助 v.

  28. deny=refuse=withhold 否认 v.

  29. permit=allow=let=agree to=authorize 许可 v.

  30. interfere=intrude=disrupt=meddle 干扰 v.

  31. repeat=redo=retake=do sth. again 重复 v.

  32. prevent=stop=restrain=hold back=discourage 阻止 v.

  33. disrupt=disturb=upset=break up 打扰 v.

  34. long-term=chronic=long=lengthy=long-running 长期的 adj.

  35. expose=show=reveal=present=let sb. see 暴露,揭发 v.

  36. intense=strong=passionate=powerful=fervent 强烈的adj.

  37. random=arbitrary=at random 任意的,随机的 adj.

  38. require=demand=need=call for 要求v.

  39. fatigue=tiredness=exhaustion=drowsiness 疲劳 n.

  40. manifest=show=reveal=present 显示 v.

  41. concentrate=pay attention=put one's mind on=attentive 专注 v.

  42. produce=make=manufacture=create=fashion 生产 v.

  43. carry out=implement=put sth. into practice=execute 实行v.

  44. perform=do=conduct=dabble in 执行 v.

  Cambridge 8 TEST 1

  1. agree=concur=go along with=fall in with=go with v.同意

  2. sceptic and advocate=different attitude 不同的看法

  3. significance=impressive=meaning=sense n.重要性

  4. meditation: the practice of emptying your mind of thoughts and feelings, in order to relax completely or for religious reasons n.冥想,沉思

  5. parapsychology: the scientific study of mysterious abilities that some people claim to have, such as knowing what will happen in the future n.通灵学

  6. environment=condition=light, sound, warmth=situation=circumstance n.环境

  7. alter=change=revise=make changes v. 改变

  8. trial=experiment=test n.实验

  9. success rate=positive result=achievement=progress=breakthrough=accomplishment n.成就

  10. pick out=identify=recognize=know=tell v.认出,识别

  11. limit=minimize=maximum=the most=ceiling=cut-off point v.限制

  12. different=individual=not like=vary=not the same=contrast with=diverse adj.独特的

  13. invention=device=creation=innovation n.发明,装置

  14. cold temperature=freezing weather=chilly=frosty=wintry=cold snap adj.寒冷的

  15. farming=agriculture n.农业

  16. simultaneous=at the same time=together=at once=at one time adj.同时的

  17. uniform=equal=homogeneous adj.均衡的

  18. devise=formulate=invent=create=come up with=make up=conceive=coin=dream up v.创造

  19. civil=municipal=metropolitan adj.城市的

  20. divide=split=separate=break up=break down=take apart=take something to piece v. 分开

  21. new=revolutionary=original=innovation=fresh=novel=be in its infancy adj.新的,革命的

  22. create=introduce=invent=make sth. do sth.=be the cause=lead to sth. v..发明

  23. organize=co-ordinate=arrange=set out=put something in order=line up v.组织,使协调

  24. public event=communal activity 公众、社交活动

  25. aviation disaster=sky accident=air crash 空难

  26. prompt=result in=lead to=make somebody do something=cause somebody to do something=lead somebody to do something=motivate=induce somebody to do something v. 导致

  27. resemble=like=similar=alike=much the same=comparable v.类似

  28. oversimplify=incomplete=simplistic=generalize=see things in black and white adj. 过于简化的,不完整的

  29. altitude=from…meters above the ground=height=how high=level n.高度

  30. zone=airspace=region=area=district=quarter=block=suburb n.区域

  31. weather=meteorological=climate=condition n.气候

  32. categorize=class / type=sort=classify=be grouped=grade v.分类

  33. create=establish=invent=start up=open=set up=found=inception v.创建

  34. beacon and flashing=light=beam n.灯光

  35. improve=develop=evolve=get better=catch up=pick up=things are looking up v.发展,进化

  36. aircraft=plane=by air n.飞机

  37. average-sized=medium-sized adj. 中等的

  38. city=metropolitan=urban=town=village=civic=municipal=downtown n.城市

  39. pendulum : a long metal stick with a weight at the bottom that swings regularly from side to side to control the working of a clock n.钟摆

  40. coincidental : happening completely by chance without being planned adj.巧合的

  41. disobey : to refuse to do what someone with authority tells you to do, or refuse to obey a rule or law v.不服从

  Cambridge 8 TEST 2

  drastically : extreme and sudden adv.彻底地

  carry out : subject to : 使服从

  remain=stay=keep=continue to be=still v.保持

  detect=inspect=examine=notice=spot=become aware / conscious=note=conserve=perceive v.检查

  fault=flaw=defect=trouble=bug=virus=be something wrong with=be something matter with n.缺陷,缺点

  enough=sufficient=adequate=cover=meet somebody's need adj.足够的

  main=largely=principal=chief=major=key=primary=prime=predominant=core adj.主要的:

  documentation=written account=evidence=proof n.证明

  shift=switch=transfer=move=jerk v.转换

  consistent=lasting=stay the same=constant=unchanging adj.持续的

  drought=no rain at all=dry=dusty adj.干旱的

  period=cycle=era=age n.年代

  random=arbitrary=at random adj.随机的

  molten=hot=heat=boiling / boiling hot=scalding / scalding hot adj.熔化的

  intense=strong=passionate=powerful=deep adj.强烈的

  discover=explore=find / unearth=turn up v.开发,发现

  pattern=trade / commodity=business n.贸易

  relate to=associate with=link to / connect to=identify with 联系

  feeling=emotional response / sensory=a sense of=passion n. 感觉

  unappreciated=undervalued adj.低估的

  difficult=elusive=hard / tough=easier said than done adj.困难的,难懂的

  study=research=analyse=do/conduct research v.研究

  smell=odour=scent n.气味

  interpretation=be considered to be=understanding=reading n.理解

  define=distinguish=tell the difference v.使明确

  damage=impair=break=do/cause damage=scratch v.损害

  realize=consciously consider=occur to=become aware=sink in=strike=hit=wake up to the fact that v.想到

  reveal=show=demonstrate=let somebody see=present=expose=let somebody take a look v.显示

  to be defined=unanswered 无答案的

  husbands and wives=marriage partner / spouse=couple=newlyweds夫妇

  linguistic=language n.语言

  describe=name=express=give a description of=talk about=write about=give an account of=tell of v.描述

  lack=do not exist=not enough=scarce=inadequate=insufficient=in short supply v.缺乏的

  do not smell=odorless 没有气味的

  regard as=consider to 把…认作

  unpleasant=offensive=horrible / disgusting / revolting=not very nice=nasty adj.极讨厌的

  certain=some=a measure of adj.一些

  correspond=be consist of=coincide=match up v.一致

  relevance n.关联

  float=afloat v.浮动

  Cambridge 8 TEST 3

  1. building=property=construction n.建筑

  2. support=back=be behind=in support of=back somebody up v.支持

  3. financial support=fund=financial aid 资助

  4. stumbling block=difficulty=trouble n.麻烦

  5. create=generate=form=produce v.形成

  6. direct=guide=lead=instruct=give order/instruction v.指导

  7. beam=laser=ray=glow=glare n.光线,激光

  8. aim=direct at=purpose=point=idea=objective=goal=target n.目的

  9. test in real=field test 实地测试

  10. genius=giftedness / talent / intellectual=intelligence=brains=brilliant=wisdom n.天才

  11. inherit=run in family=receive=get=be given=be awarded v.继承

  12. talent=prodigy=skill=ability=craftsmanship=flair=have a knack=a natural ability to do something well n.才能,技能

  13. lessen=minimize=subside=lighten=relieve=ease=allay v.减少

  14. significance=supremacy=definition=meaning=sense=connotation n.重要性

  15. achieve=make=succeed=manage=make progress=accomplish=get results v.达成

  16. limitation=restricted=disadvantage=drawback=liability=the downside n.限制

  17. inexorable=inevitable=unstoppable=remorseless adj.无法改变的

  18. stable=characteristic=constant=steady=fixed=unchanging adj.稳定的

  19. life span=duration of life 寿命

  20. biological clock=internal clock 生物钟

  21. prolong=extend=drag out=spin out v.延伸,延长

  22. principle=law=conscience=scruples n.原则,法则

  23. optimal=better=best adj.最佳的

  24. conserve=save / frugal=reserve=keep back v.节约,保存

  25. immortality : the state of living for ever or being remembered for ever adj.不朽的

  26. organism=living thing=life form=wildlife =an animal, plant, human, or any other living thing n.有机的

  Cambridge 8 TEST 4

  1. middle-year education=lower secondary school 中学

  2. format=pattern n.格式

  3. less successful student=struggler 差等生

  4. key=contributing factor=important=major=significant=critical n.关键

  5. achievement=attainment=progress=breakthrough=accomplishment n.成就

  6. spacious=largely=big=huge=vast=enormous=immense adj.广阔的

  7. adapt=accessible=get used to=become/grow accustomed to=adjust to v.适应,可接近的

  8. careful=elaborate=conscientious=thorough=meticulous=methodical adj.仔细的,精心的

  9. supplementary=assist=additional=extra=further=added=spare=more=another n.补充,帮助

  10. effort=hard work=work at=push yourself=labour n.努力

  11. correct answer=accuracy n.精确

  12. imbalance=disorder=unequal=disproportionate n.不平衡,紊乱

  13. no longer respond=resistance=fight against 抵抗

  14. cost=financial outlay=spend=charge=fare=rental=toll n.支出

  15. innate=built-in adj.先天的

  16. immunity=resistance n.免疫力

  17. entail=involve v.包含

  18. circumstance=system n.环境,系统

  19. feed on=prey on 以…为食

  20. blight=plague v.破坏

  21. wipe out=eradicate=get rid of=abolish=scrap=do away with=eliminate 根除

  22. plague=infest=troublesome v.折磨

  23. compare=determination of variation=contrast=liken=make a comparison=draw an analogy=draw a parallel v.对比

  24. criterion=identification=standard=scale n.标准,识别

  25. compatible=use both method=well-matched=be made for each other=be a perfect match /pair/couple=be right for=be ideally suited adj.兼容的

  26. specimen=individual n.标本

  27. container=plastic or glass tube n.容器

  28. wet=marshy=soaked=waterlogged=awash adj.湿的

  29. habitat=area=the environment=ecosystem=ecology n.栖息地

  30. pitfall=trap n.陷阱

  31. little time and effort is required=minimal maintenance and intervention 最小程度的维修与介入

  32. pesticide: a chemical substance used to kill insects and small animals that destroy crops n.杀虫剂

  33. preservative: a chemical substance that is used to prevent things from decaying, for example food or wood n.防腐剂


  1. recognise one's ability/ perceive one's talent/one's talent be perceived

  2. enrol in a school/attend a school

  3. sth that made him rich and famous/ sth bring him both fame and fortune

  4. Immediately understand/instant recognition

  5. refer to/ known as

  6. consult/ ask advice of

  7. now/ current/present/happening

  8. transmission/ sending information

  9. response/ reply

  10. ground rules/ assumptions underlying the research

  11. likelihood/ it seems/ perhaps, guess, estimate

  12. life expectancy/ the lifetime of

  13. most powerful/ the largest/ the biggest/ the best/ the greatest

  14. resemble/ pretty well like/ be similar to/ same as

  15. promptly/ immediately/instantly

  16. migrant/ migrate/ migration

  17. before/ in advance/ prior/ previously/ former

  18. make big changes/ redesign/modification/alteration

  19. lack/ never/no/not/in need of/want

  20. incomplete fossilised remains/ only fragments are found

  21. determine/ decide

  22. obtain/ acquire/ earn / gain / get/ procure/ receive / secure

  23. dense/ tight/thick/heavy

  24. indicate/ demonstrate / disclose / display / exhibit/ express/ hint/ imply/ point out/ pr esent/ reveal/ show /signify/suggest


  1Initiative/initiate/ launch/ pioneer/introduce/ develop

  2. National policy/NewZealand strategy

  3. Global/international

  4. Team effort/ institutional working party

  5. Hypothesis/guess/ speculation/ possibility/theory/potential

  6. Suitable/appropriate

  7. Worldwide regulations/ international standard

  8. Medical conditions/ illness/ disease

  9. Place…at risk/ leave…vulnerable

  10. Auditory problems/hearing loss

  11. Study/carry out research

  12. Machinery noise/ noise generated by machine

  13. Child which have not been diagnosed/ undiagnosed children

  14. Current teaching method/ modern teaching practices

  15. Cooling systems/ air-conditioning/mechanical means of ventilation

  16. Different/distinct/varied/reverse

  17. Prevent/keep from/inhibit/stop/thwart

  18. Potential/future/be expected to be/possible/likely

  19. Fail to do/never/not/unable to do

  20. Calculate/determine the value

  21. Be worked out/be calculated

  22. Realise/recognise/show/see/understand

  23. Witness/view/see/observe

  24. Distorted/look smeared/not circular


  1. Competitive/competitors/competition

  2. Achievement/success

  3. Because/thus/It is… that强调句型/so

  4. Rely on previous events/draw on past experience

  5. A result of/ a product of

  6. Pitfalls/ traps/snares

  7. Exposure to …/bombard…with

  8. Receptive/receive/embrace/accept/agree

  9. Novelty/new experience

  10. Fear/phobia

  11. Embarrassment/ridicule

  12. Psychological illness/mental disorder

  13. Decide/decision

  14. Scientific/science/technology/technological

  15. Argue/argument/debate/debatable/discuss/dispute/disputable

  16. Understandable/understand/reasonable

  17. Be affected by/influence

  18. Still exist/be still with us

  19. Stop/halt/prevent/end

  20. Pointless/not/no point of

  21. Misrepresented/paint unreal pictures

  22. The custom of speaking/ popular speech

  23. Grammatical rules/ rules of grammar

  24. Alternative/choice/way/replacement


  1. Back into Britain/ re-import into Britain

  2. Reliable/predictable

  3. Cut down/reduce

  4. Increase income/export earner

  5. Power station/power plant

  6. In the vicinity of/around/nearby

  7. Extraction of seaweed/clean seaweed

  8. Result from/cause

  9. In danger/at risk

  10. Comparatively/relatively

  11. Explanation/explain/reason

  12. Transmission of information/information pass on/information send back/transmit

  13. Unnecessary/redundant/superfluous

  14. Incident/event

  15. Initially/originally

  16. Be about to stop working/on the brink of failing

  17. Be used to/by means of

  18. Send messages over distances/transmit information from place to place

  19. Signal strength/ strength of the signal

  20. From her childhood/when she was a child

  21. Her children were born/birth of her two daughters

  22. Marie took over the teaching position/she was appointed to the professorship

  23. Have the same property/…is true for …

  24. Receive recognition/be awarded



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